Using the Z-bell℠ Test to Remediate Spatial Deficiencies in Non-Image-Forming Retinal Processing
By Clark Elliott , Cynthia Putnam , Deborah Zelinsky ,
Daniel Spinner , Silpa Vipparti  and Abhinit Parelkar 
 DePaul University, 1 DePaul Center, Chicago IL 60604, USA
 Mind-Eye Institute, 1414 Techny Rd, Northbrook IL 60062, USA
© Clark Elliott, 2019, All rights reserved.
Preliminary evidence from a larger study is presented demonstrating that non-image-forming retinal processing takes place even through closed eyelids.
Abstract. Preliminary evidence from a larger study is presented demonstrating that non-image-forming retinal processing takes place even through closed eyelids. The Z-bell℠ test, which has been in clinical use for more than twenty years shows that these processing channels affect how we perceive context in the space around us when forming visual imagery. By using therapeutic eyeglasses and pitched bells, we can measure changes in a subject’s spatial processing, and remediate deficiencies among non-image-forming neural channels that operate in even the low-light conditions produced by closed eyelids. Using what we know of both the top-down feedback filtering of retinal input triggered purely by aural signals and also the characteristic difficulties that brain-injured patients have in organizing visual scenes (which the Z-bell℠ test links to difficulties with non-image-forming retinal processing), it is argued that the non-image-forming retinal channels demonstrated in this study may be critical in any human-centric model of computer vision. Spatial coding as a basis for human cognition is also briefly discussed.
Keywords: Peripheral Vision, Retina, Z-bell, Spatial Cognition, Context
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“Zelinsky fit Elliott with a series of eyeglasses designed to improve the perceptual damage that made his life so difficult… Getting fitted for Zelinsky's eyeglasses is like no eye appointment you've ever had… Now, Elliott says, he is almost entirely symptom-free, able to problem-solve, multi-task and find his way easily — all abilities he lost in the auto accident in 1999. When he put on his Phase VI glasses he felt something that he hadn't felt for years: “I felt normal.”
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